Fishing effort distribution of large beam trawlers in 2012

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          title: 
              Fishing effort distribution of large beam trawlers in 2012
          alternateTitle: 
              Fishing effort distribution of large beam trawlers in 2012
          date: 
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                  2014-11-05
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                  Rabea Diekmann
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              Fishing pressure
      abstract: 
          International fishing effort distribution in 2012 was calculated for large beam trawlers (>221kW, >24m) 
          in the German EEZ of the North Sea. It was quantified as swept area ratio, which is the ratio between the 
          trawled area over one year and the size of the respective grid cell. Thus, a swept area ratio of 1 means 
          that an area equivalent to the size of the grid cell was fished over one year. The swept area was calculated 
          from data from Vessel monitoring by satellite (VMS) using the approximate width of the first gear of the 
          ship, taken from the European Fleet register. Cell sizes were assigned using the nested grid approach 
          following Gerritsen et al. 2013 (ICES J. Mar. Sci. 70: 523-531), with approximately 3552km² (corresponding 
          to a resolution of 1°x0.5° at 55°N) as the coarsest and approximately 3.5km² as the finest resolution of 
          grid cells, whereas the resolution depends on the amount of information (GPS data from fishing vessels) 
          within a spatial grid.
      purpose: 
          International fishing effort distribution of large beam trawlers in the German EEZ of the North Sea in 2012
      credit: 
          Thünen Institut (TI)
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              Rabea Diekmann
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              Thünen Institut
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                      Hamburg
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                      rabea.diekmann@ti.bund.de
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              Fishering effort distribution 2012
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              The swept area ratio can only be an approximate value to quantify the impact on the seafloor. First of 
              all, calculations were based on the assumption that all vessels use exclusively their primary gear 
              listed in the Fleet register. Further, gear types are usually further broken down into fishing métiers, 
              specifying gear parameters and target species. Here, we could only distinguish between small and large 
              beam trawlers. Small beam trawler represent to a large degree the coastal shrimp fishery. Effort in 
              offshore areas is probably associated to plaice fishery. Large beam trawlers represent the flatfish 
              fishery, mainly but not exclusively the fishery targeting sole.Because gear designs differ not only in 
              their size, which is considered as gear width, but also in their bottom contact (e.g. by tickler 
              chains), the physical trawling impact is not equivalent to the swept area ratio. Further, the swept area 
              is not equivalent to the proportion of the cell that was impacted by the gear (unless fishing tracks do 
              not overlap at all). The nested grid approach gives swept area ratios for each grid cell, which are 
              however not equivalent in size. Locally the swept area ratio may be even larger when grid cells would be 
              further broken down. However, this can be only done to a resolution of approximately 3.5km² because 
              position data are usually only exact to 0.01°. Further, the VMS system sends position data approximately 
              every 2 hours, and the track of the ship in between cannot be estimated with a high precision.
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